Palm wine is an alcoholic beverage created from the sap of various species of palm tree such as the palmyra, date palms, and coconut palms. It is known by various names in different regions and is common in various parts of Asia, Africa the Caribbean and South America.
Palm wine production by small holders and individual farmers may promote conservation as palm trees become a source of regular household income that may economically be worth more than the value of timber sold.
Palm wine is known as matango, mbuh, tumbu liquor, white stuff in Cameroon; emu, nkwu, oguro in Nigeria; poyo in Sierra Leone, nsamba in the Democratic Republic of the Congo; nsafufuo in Ghana; kallu in South India; Htan Yay in Myanmar; tuak in North Sumatra, Indonesia; mnazi in the Mijikenda language of Kenya; goribon (Rungus) in Sabah, Borneo; vino de coyol in Central America; and tubâ in the Philippines, Borneo and Mexico. In the Philippines, tubâ and "Kallu" in Tamil refers both to the freshly harvested, sweetish cloudy-white sap and the one with the red lauan-tree tan bark colorant. In Leyte, the red tubâ is aged with the tan bark for up to six months to two years, until it gets dark red and tapping its glass container gives a sound that does not suddenly stop. This type of tubâ is called bahal (for tubâ aged this way for up to six months) and bahalina (for tubâ aged thus for up to a year or more). Toddy is also consumed in Sri Lanka and Myanmar, where in Sri Lanka it is known as thal ra, kithul ra, or pol ra according to the plant used to make toddy.