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8/3/16

FILIPINO FOOD GLOSSARY



FILIPINO FOOD GLOSSARY



Philippine cuisine (Filipino: Lutuing Pilipino or Pagkaing Pilipino) consists of the food, preparation methods, and eating customs found in the Philippines. The style of cooking and the food associated with it have evolved over many centuries from their Austronesian origins to a mixed cuisine of Indian, Japanese, Malay, Chinese, Spanish, and American, as well as other Asian Indian cuisine adapted to indigenous ingredients and the local palate.[1]

Dishes range from the very simple, like a meal of fried salted fish and rice, to the elaborate paellas and cocidos created for fiestas of Spanish origin. Popular dishes include: lechón[2] (whole roasted pig), longganisa (Philippine sausage), tapa (cured beef), torta (omelette), adobo (chicken and/or pork braised in garlic, vinegar, oil and soy sauce, or cooked until dry), kaldereta (meat in tomato sauce stew), mechado (larded beef in soy and tomato sauce), puchero (beef in bananas and tomato sauce), afritada (chicken and/or pork simmered in a tomato sauce with vegetables), kare-kare (oxtail and vegetables cooked in peanut sauce), pinakbet (kabocha squash, eggplant, beans, okra, and tomato stew flavored with shrimp paste), crispy pata (deep-fried pig's leg), hamonado (pork sweetened in pineapple sauce), sinigang (meat or seafood in sour broth), pancit (noodles), and lumpia (fresh or fried spring rolls).






achuete,
atswete
bixa
orellana
, annato seed; also called lipstick plant
adobo a dish of
meat, seafood or vegetables cooked in vinegar and spices
adobado cooked in
vinegar and spices
agahan breakfast
agkud (Manobo) a
liquor made from rice, corn, cassava or sorghum
alak the generic
Tagalog term for liquor or wine
alibangbang bauhinia
malabarica
, butterfly-shaped leaves from a tree used for souring
alimango mud crab
alimasag blue crab
alugbati bassela
alba,
Ceylon spinach
ampalaya momordica
charantia
, bittermelon or bitter gourd
anonas annona
reticulata
, custard apple, bullock heart
apa wafer, also
cone for ice cream
apahap lates
calcarifer,
silver sea bass
aratiles muntingia
calabura,
a little cherry-like wild fruit
arroz
caldo
rice gruel
cooked with chicken, often flavored with
kasubha
atis annona
squamosa,
sugar apple
ayungin datnia
plumbea,
silver perch

B. 

babaylan high
priest/priestess in the native religion
bacalao
(a la Vizcania)
(Spanish)
salted codfish cooked in the style of Biscayne
balbakwa in Luzon,
salted fish; in Mindanao, a meat stew
bag-o (Waray) tuba
newly taken from the coconut
bagoong salted,
fermented fish or shrimp paste/sauce
bahal,
bahalina
fermented
tuba weeks, months, or years old
bakuli ophicephalus
striatus
, murray fingerling
balangay balanghay, a sailboat with 12-16 rowers
balimbing averrhoa
carmbola
, star fruit, carambola
balut

balut sa puti
a fertilized
duck's egg 16-19 days old,
balut sa puti is still wrapped in white membrane and thus literally
"wrapped in white", which is what the phrase means
banak family
magulidae
, mullet
bangus chanos
chanos
, milk fish     
baon a food
package from home taken to work or school
barilis (Davao
Bisayan) neothunnus macropterus, yellowfin tuna
batsoy a dish of
pork internal organs in broth
batuan garcinia
morella
, a small sour green fruit with a large seed
baya high-grade
rice wine (tapuy) from the Cordillera
bayabas psidium
guajava
, guava
baye-baye (Ilonggo) a
snack made of pinipig (young rice, pounded) and young coconut
bayawak monitor
lizard
beche-de-mer (French) sea
slug, trepang, sea cucumber
betute
(Pampango) a
dish of stuffed frog
bia,
biya
family
gobiidae
, goby
bibingka a rice cake
often garnished with salted eggs and carabao (water buffalo) milk cheese
bignay antidesma
bunius
, Chinese laurel
binubudan (Ilokano)
yeast for rice wine
binuro (Ilonggo)
fish salted in layers
bodbod (Cebuano)
glutinous rice cooked iwth coconut milk and wrapped in banana leaf
brazo
de mercedes
a meringue
roll with an egg filling
buan-buan megalops
cyprinoides
, tarpon
bukayo a sweet made
from mature coconut
bulalo kneecap; a
dish of this and other beef bones and meats boiled with vegetables
bulalohan the eateries
that offer boiled bulalo
buñuelos
de viento
(Spanish)
wind puff, a pastry served with syrup
burong
isda
fish
fermented with rice
buwad (Cebuano)
dried salted fish

C.

cadera (Spanish)
sirloin
caldero (Spanish)
cooking pot
caldereta (Spanish)
goat stew
callos con
garbanzos
(Spanish)
tripe cooked with chick peas
camachille pithecellobium
dulce
, kamachille, Madras thorn fruit
camaron
rebozado
(Spanish)
batter-fried shrimp, a Chinese dish
camote ipomoea
batatas,
sweet potato
canonigo (Spanish) a
dessert of meringue with an egg-butter sauce
carajay a native
frying pan with a rounded bottom, a wok
carinderia,
karinderia
a low-priced
eating place, often at roadsides or markets
champurrado a dish of
rice cooked with chocolate
chicharron crackling
made from pork, beef, or carabao skin
chico manilkara
zapote,
a brown sweet fruit with black seeds
chorizo (Spanish)
sausage
churros (Spanish)
fluted breakfast crullers usually taken with chocolate
cocido (Spanish) a
stew of mixed meats, sausages, and vegetables

D.

dahon bawang the leaves
of the garlic plant, allium sativum
daing fish split
open, salted, and dried
dalag ophicephalus
striatus
, murrel
dayap citrus
aurantifolia
, lime
de recado (Spanish)
spiced; in the Philippines, it refers to spicy sausages
dikin the woven
rattan ring on which the round-bottomed palayok is set to stand
dilao, dilaw curcuma
domestica
, turmeric
dinuguan at
puto
a dish of
blood stew with steamed rice cakes
duhat syzygium
kumini
, Java plum
dulang a low table,
formerly for dining
durian durio
zybethinus
, a fruit with a strong smell

E.

embutido (Spanish) a
ground pork roll
ensaimada (Spanish) a
brioche-like roll that is buttered, sugared, and cheese-sprinkled
escabeche (Spanish)
fish cooked with vinegar, garlic, onions, and ginger

G.

gabi colocasia
esculenta
, taro root
galletas (Spanish)
very thin biscuits
gata' coconut milk
ginataan cooked in
coconut milk; the dishes so cooked
guisa,
mag-guisa
to sauté
guisar (Spanish) to
sautè
guyabano

annona
muricata
, soursop

H.

halabos to steam
shrimps or prawns in their own juice
halo-halo a mixture of
sweetened beans and fruits topped with crushed ice or ice cream; a refresher served in a
tall glass
hamonado ham-cured;
usually referring to sausages
hapunan supper,
dinner
hibe small
shrimps, peeled and dried
hipon at
kasuy
shrimps
cooked with cashew nuts
hojaldres (Spanish) a
thin pastry, sometimes of puff paste
humba a dish of
stewed pork

I.

inday-inday (Ilonggo) a
snack made of glutinous rice and coconut
inihaw roasted,
charcoal-broiled or grilled
inihaw na
panga
roasted or
charcoal-broiled jaw of yellowfin tuna
inuman a drinking
session
inumin a drink
(could be plain water, soda, beer, juice, wine) taken together with a meal
inun-unan (Cebuano)
fish cooked in vinegar; in Tagalog, paksiw
itlog egg

J.

jamon (Spanish)
ham
jamon en
dulce
(Spnaish)
ham cooked in and/or coated or glazed with sugar
jamonado (Spanish)
ham-cured

K.

kadyos cadjanus
cadjan
, pigeon pea
kaimito,
caimito
chrusophillum
caimito
, star apple
kakang gata coconut
cream
kakanin snacks,
light cakes, usually made of rice
kalamansi citrus
madurensis
, a small lime indigenous to the Philippines; also called Chinese orange,
Panama orange
kalan a clay
stove for wood or charcoal fuel
kalkag (Ilonggo)
tiny shrimps, lightly salted and dried
kamachille see
camachille
kamaru (Pampango)
mole cricket
kamayan eating with
hands instead of Western utensils (see comic strip below)

kamias averrhoa
bijimbi
, a small acidic fruit
kanduli family
ariidae
, sea catfish
kangkong ipomoea
aquatica
, swamp cabbage, also called potato vine
kaong the fruit
of a sugar palm
kari pre-cooked
food
kari-kari a stew of
ox tail/feet/tripe with vegetables and a sauce thickened with ground roasted peanuts and
rice
karihan an eatery
selling pre-cooked food
karinderia an eatery
selling pre-cooked food
kasim lean pork,
picnic
kasubha the dried
stigmas of a plant, used for coloring and flavoring food; a kind of saffron
kasuy anacardium
occidentale
, cashew
katuray sesbania
grandiflora
, a white flower used in salads
kawa a vat used
for cooking large amounts of food
kesong puti literally
"white cheese", a cottage cheese made of carabao's (water buffalo) milk
kinchay apium
graveolens
, Chinese celery
kinilaw a dish of
fish, seafood, meat or vegetables dressed with vinegar or lime juice, but not cooked over
fire
kiping a rice
wafer used for decoration in Lucban and other towns in Quezon
kolis pisonia
alba,
lettuce tree, also called
maluko in Tagalog
kulitis amarnthus
viridis,
slender amaranth
kundol benicasa
hispida,
wax gourd
kutsay allium
odorum,
Chinese chives
kutsinta a little
cake made of steamed mixture of sugar, rice, lye

L.

lagundi vitex
negundo
, a medicinal plant
laksoy liquor
distilled form the sap of a nipa palm
lakub the bamboo
tube attacked to the coconut bud to catch the sap for tuba
lambanog liquor
distilled from the sap of coconut palm
langkawas galingale,
galenggal
lanzones lansium
domesticum
, a small fruit that grows in bunches, with translucent flesh in segments
enclosing seeds
lapu-lapu family
serranidae
, grouper
laswa (Ilonggo) a
dish of mixed leafy, pod and fruit vegetables steamed with
bagoong and dried shrimps
lawot-lawot (Waray) a
dish of mixed leafy, pod, and fruit vegetables
leche flan (Spanish)
milk custard; creme caramel
lechon,
letson
(Spanish)
pig; in the Philippines, split-roasted pig
lechon manok chicken
roasted on a split
lengua
estofada
(Spanish)
stewed ox tongue
liempo pork belly
lina (Ilonggo)
newly-gathered
tuba
lomi wide noodles
in broth
lomo (Spanish)
beef loin
longaniza (Spanish)
long sausage
lugaw rice
porridge or gruel
lumpia Chinese-style
eggroll; meat and/or vegetables wrapped in thin crepe

M.

macapuno sport
coconut
mameng,
maming
family
labridae
, wrasse
mami a dish of
noodles, chicken or beef, and broth
manamis-namis (adjective)
mildly sweet, not the sweetness of sugar but of freshness
marang artocarpus
odoratissima
, a large aromatic fruit containing segements each enclosing a seed
mazapan (Spanish)
marzipan
mechado (Spanish)
beef cooked with pork lardoons
menudo a stew dish
of diced pork, chicken, sausage, potatoes, carrots, peas, and tomato sauce usually eaten
with rice on the side
merienda a
mid-afternoon snack
merienda-cena a late
afternoon meal; an early supper or dinner
minoron a snack of
glutinous rice cooked with a streak of chocolate
miso soybean cake
or mash
mole (Spanish) a
Mexican dish of chicken cooked with peanuts
morisqueta
tostada
(Spanish)
rice fried with vegetables and other condiments
munggo phaseolus
aureus
, green mung bean
musang civet cat
mustasa brassica
juncea v. integrifola
, mustard greens

N

nata de coco a sweet made
by growing a culture on coconut water
nilaga boiled; a
dish of boiled beef, or pork, or chicken, and vegetables

P

paella (Spanish) a
dish of rice cooked with meats and/or seafood and vegetables
pahiyas the feast of
San Isidro Labrador on May 15, celebrated in Lucban, Quezon by decorating the houses with
food.  In Madrid, Spain, the same feast is celebrated on the same day, and San Isidro
Labrador is also the patron saint of Madrid.
pako arthyrium
esculentum
, edible fern
paksiw a dish
cooked in vinegar and garlic
paksiw na
pata
pork
trotters cooked in vinegar
palay unhusked
rice
palayok a
round-bottomed clay pot
palitaw small cakes
made from glutinous rice
pan de sal,
de limon, de coco, de leche, americano
(Spanish)
bread respectively with salt, lemon, coconut, and milk; sliced loaf bread
pandan pandanus
odoratissimus
, screw pine
panga literally
jaw; the jaw of yellowfin tuna
panghimagas dessert; a
sweet taken after meals
pancit,
pansit
a dish of
noodles and shrimps, fish, meat, or vegetables, with many variations, e.g.,
luglog
(shaken in hot water, flavored with sauce),
molo (with pork-filled
wontons and broth),
Malabon (with shrimps, oysters, and squid), habhab
(eaten off a banana leaf),
Canton (with egg noodles), bihon (with rice
noodles),
buko (with coconut strips instead of noodles)
pansit-pansitan peperomia
pellucida
, a scculent herb, the leaves of which have medicinal properties
pantulak,
panulak
literally
"for pushing"; refers to drinks, which "push" the
pulutan down
pasalubong a gift
brought home from a trip
pastel de
pollo
(Spanish) a
chicken pie; a dish of chicken with crust
pastillas (Spanish)
pastilles; usually pastillas de leche, sweets made of milk
pata tim a Chinese
dish of stewed pork leg
patis fish sauce
patola luffa
cylindrica
, sponge gourd
patupat (Ilokano) a
rice cake wrapped in banana leaf
pavo
embuchado
(Spanish)
stuffed turkey
pesa

pesang manok
a dish of
fish or chicken cooked with vegetables, often served with a miso sauce
pescado en
salsa agrio-dulce
(Spanish)
fish in a sweet and sour sauce
petsay brassica
chinesis
, pakchoy, bokchoy
pili canarium
ovatum
, a hard nut indigenous to the Philippines, with an oil-rich kernel
pinya, piña pineapple
pimientos
morrones
(Spanish)
red bell peppers
pinais a dish
native to Quezon province, of shrimps and coconut wrapped in banana leaf and steamed in
coconut water
pinakbet a dish of
Ilokano origin, of
ampalaya, okra, eggplants, and tomatoes steamed with fish bagoong
pinamalhan (Ilonggo)
fish cooked in vinegar, which is allowed to evaporate
pinapaitan (Ilokano) a
dish of goat meat with goat bile
pinaupong
manok
chicken
steamed in a bed of salt
pochero (Spanish) a
stew of mixed meats, sausages and vegetables with tomatoes
polvoron a sweet of
powdery texture made of powdered milk and sugar
postre (Spanish)
dessert
puchero a native
stew of meat, sausage and vegetables with an eggplant relish
pulutan any cooked
dish (meat, chicken, pork, seafood) taken with beer, wine, liquor during a drinking
session; could also be nuts; a
pulutuan is similar to Spanish tapas-tapas
punta y
pecho
(Spanish)
beef brisket
pusu rice cooked
in a fist-sized woven-leaf basket; "travelling" or "hanging" rice
puto steamed rice
cake
puto bumbong a
cylindrical cake of violet rice (pirurutung) steamed upright in a bamboo tube

Q

queso de
bola
Edam ball
cheese

R

relleno (Spanish)
stuffed food, dish
rellenong
alimasag
crab sauteed
and stuffed into the crab shell
rellenong
manok
stuffed
chicken
rellenong
bangus
milkfish
stuffed with its own flesh that has been sauteed

S

sa malamig cold drinks
sold at streetside
sahog the shrimps,
meat, etc. used to flavor vegetables or noodle dish
salabat ginger
tea/brew
saluyot corchorus
olitorius
, Jew's mallow
sangke star anise
santol sandoricum
koetjape
, a fruit with a thick rind and pulp enclosing whitish, furry seeds,
sour-sweet in taste
sapin-sapin a rice sweet
of blanc-mange consistency, made of several layers, usually of different colors
sarten (Spanish)
frying pan
sawa snake;
python or boa constrictor
sayote sechium
edule
, chayote, mirliton pear
shawarma a Middle
Eastern snack of sliced meat (beef, lamb, chicken) and condiments served with pita bread
sili capsicum
annuum
, chili
sinalok (Cebuano)
a steamed corned cake eaten with
kinilaw
sinampalukang
manok
chicken
cooked with tamarind leaves and sprouts
sinangag garlic-fried
rice
sineguelas,
sinegwelas
spondias
purpurea, Spanish plum
sinigang a stew of
meat/fish/seafood and vegetables in a sour broth
singkamas pachyrrhizus
erosus
, yambean
solasi,
sulasi
ocimum
sanctum
, holy basil
solomillo (Spanish)
tenderloin
sotanghon
guisado
mungbean
noodles sauteed with meats and vegetables
suam soups and
dishes made of rice water
suha citrus
grandis
, pomelo
suki a vendor
from whom one buys regularly; also a regular customer
sugpo prawn
suman a rice cake
from glutinous rice, often wrapped in palm or banana leaves

T

tabon-tabon hydrophytune
orbiculatum
, a fruit, the juice of which is used in
kinilaw, and for
finishing baskets
tagay,
tagayan, tagatagayan, tagay-tagay
the measure,
the practice, and the one in charge of drinking at a drinking session
taho a drink made
of soybean curd and syrup
tahuri soy bean
cake
talbos the
young sprouts or tendrils of squash,
camote or sayote
plants
tamales a rice cake
flavored with peanuts, pork, eggs, etc. and wrapped in banana leaves
tanghalian the noon
meal; lunch
tanglad cymbopogon
citratus
, lemon grass
tapa slices
or strips of dried meat;
tapang usa is dried venison
tapey (Manobo) the
yeast for making rice wine
tapoi (Igorot) the
yeast for making rice wine
tapuy (Igorot)
rice wine
tausi, tawsi salted
soybeans
tilapia tilapia
zili
, a fast-growing fish
tinapa smoked fish
tinolang
manok
a dish of
chicked cooked with vegetable (green papaya, chili leaves) and broth
tinowa (Cebuano) a
dish of fish and vegetables in a lightly soured broth
tocino (Spanish)
salt pork; in Tagalog or Pampango it is sweet cured pork
toge, togue mung bean
sprouts
tokwa firm soy
bean curd, also fried soy bean curd
torta de
cangrejo
(Spanish)
crabmeat cooked with egg
torta del
rey
(Spanish) a
cake of many thin layers
tortilla de
patatas
(Spanish)
potato omelet
tuba palm toddy
tupig (Ilocano) a
kind of rice cake wrapped in banana leaves
turo-turo an
eatery in which the pre-cooked foods are laid out, and chosen by pointing (
turo)
turon a
fried spring roll, either meat, vegetable, or banana;
turong
saging
(deep fried banana fritter) is usually cooked in oil
with brown sugar and some jackfruit strips, and a typical snack or dessert in the
Philippines
turron (Spanish)
nougat
tuyo whole fish,
dried and salted

U

ubod the core of
the coconut palm; heart of palm
ukoy a vegetable
patty, of mixed vegetables, or of flour and vegetables; a variation is a combination of
shrimps, tofu, and vegetable patty
ulam viand, the
main dish that comes with rice
ulang ustacidae,
crayfish; also macrobrachium rosenbergii, giant freshwater prawn
upo lagenaria
leucantha
, bottle gourd

W
   


wansoy corindrium
sativum
, coriander leaf